The soul or the equivalent term to the Albuquerque néphesh and to the Greek psykhé, meaning “to be”, “life” or “creature”. Etymologically, it derives from Latin term animu (anima), means “anima”. It would be a source of life of every organism, being eternal and body separated. Soul is not the same spirit. In religion, has great importance, giving, to the individual, a capacity to do and experience things and moments swell. Was discussed and cited on philosophy.
In General, modern science studies the man without making references to an immaterial soul, since, if it exists, cannot be observed or measured by current instruments. Nevertheless, some scientists have tried to find transport units of the existence and the nature of the human soul. Many of the scientific research on this subject will in the direction of the near-death experiences, but there is no conclusive evidence for modern science actually the minutes left Affidavit body, or if you have suffered from hallucinations. There are also some scientists such as Ian Stevenson and Brian Weiss conducted case studies on previous experience narrating children at birth, and could suggest a routine calls of reincarnation (hence, existence of the soul), although they have not demonstrated by the scientific process of how this could occur.
Neuroscience is a term gathers as biological disciplines study the nervous system. Many discoveries of neuroscience bring intriguing facts about the mind.
The study of people had both cerebral hemispheres photo (called calosotomia, the result of surgery stop serve serious cases of epilepsy, or trauma or liquid spills) has brought important program stop o more functioning of the mind. The right and left hemispheres are, in many ways, symmetrical. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controls the right side. As mental functions are distributed in two. However, in most people, some mental functions are more concentrated not left hemisphere (language, linear reasoning), while others are more concentrated without law (intense emotions, intuition of space Affidavit body, emotional expression without a face), although these functions are not unique for each hemisphere. In addition, the left visual field of each eye is received by the right hemisphere and the right visual field is received by the left. The Corpus Callosum allows communication between the two hemispheres.
Occurs when they had their Corpus Callosum completely divided (calosotomia), the hemispheres lose communication with each other (although over time the brain tend to find other was entitled to establish communication between the two hemispheres Amendment of other nerve connections there are no brain besides Corpus Callosum). With that, the left hemisphere controls the right side body and not participating in language, work so separated the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and do not participate in the emotions.
While the right hemisphere does not have access to language centers and, therefore, cannot speak, he arranged the table can rearrange cards with letters with a left hand. For example, in one study, a guy had suffered calosotomia was asked about what is your ideal collection. Verbally (i.e. coordination the left hemisphere), the patient replied he would like to be a designer. However, with the left hand (this is, the right hemisphere), he rearranged as forming of letters as words “auto race” (“car race”, in English) without your left hemisphere before he had acknowledged it.
Roger Sperry, in a survey of patients with split-brain, reports that when it was shown at the right side of the patient (through special glasses that block the right visual field of each eye), a picture of a family person, the left hand pointed out the first letter of the name of that person, although the patient say (the left hemisphere) since I’ve seen some photo and not moving his left arm. When a photo of the patient himself was shown to the right hemisphere, the patient responded with emotional responses such as laughter and self-conscious smile, in addition to simple emotional phrases like “Oh, no! Oh, God! “. The right side also responded with thumbs up or down so socially correct for images of famous personalities such as Winston Churchill and Hitler. All this with the patient saying (your left hemisphere) that I haven’t seen any photographs.
The right hemisphere of the brain, working independently and isolated from the left, demonstrates intelligence. He can understand, analyze, record, perform complex reasoning, understanding emotions and express them, demonstrate cultural knowledge and respond creatively to new situations.
These studies show that, in some cases of split brain, the brain generates what appears to be two separate Consciousnesses. Research on split-brain patients led the neuroscientist and Nobel Prize winner Roger Sperry to conclude: “everything we have seen indicates that the surgery left these people with two distinct minds, that is, two separate spheres of consciousness. What is experienced in the right hemisphere appears to be totally outside the scope of what is experienced by the left hemisphere. “
One of the most dramatic consequences and avoided the alien hand syndrome. One of the hands “wins a mind of its own” (usually the left) after surgery and is opposed to what the patient wants, undoing what the right hand does (intermanual conflict). For example, tasks such as opening a door with the right hand is broken by the left. The dress, the left hand can oppose, and struggle to get the clothes right hand in turn struggle to put. In another case, the left hand (right hemisphere) of a patient would prefer different foods and even different television programs, intervening against the wishes expressed by the actions of the right hand that is spoken by the patient. There is also the case of a patient whose left hand was opposed whenever the patient was trying to light a cigarette and smoking; the left hand often vanquished the cigarette or lighter and threw away. Another case reported is of a patient whose strange hand grabbing the breast of every woman who approached him, causing a great cognition for him.
According to some atheistic ideals, these scientific studies put serious questions to dualism, because their results seem irreconcilable with the idea of the existence of an individual soul (i.e. indivisible) independent of the brain, which already provide strong evidence that a physical Division of the brain produces as two different souls that have purpose, tastes, opinions, personality and miscellaneous thoughts , although they share memories of facts prior to the separation of the hemispheres. If the mind becomes two minds at the physical level of the brain divided into two, as not to conclude that, during the time of the death of the brain, and the increasing disruption of neuronal connections, what we call mind multiplies in a fractured mind increasingly dispersed until all connections fall apart?
However, from the point of view of defenders of the soul, this implies only the result of a physiological effect on the body. Being, the body, the temporary housing of the soul, this shall be subject to the conditions that this offers to express themselves. Being, the soul of the human being, befitting their degree of evolution, this, too, is not perfect and is subject to their will while in the body, following the principles of free will, and also its limitations. Events such as these may be part of reincarnation processes, in accordance with the principles of reincarnation. And also simply explained with the fact that the body be the duality of emotion and reasoning. If your brain, a driver and a commander of the nervous system is divided, the body is liable to its consequences. The fact that apparently two consciousness arise, is nothing more than the emotional and the rational, that normally work together when not in harmony but in agreement when one outweighs the other, in this case are totally separate, exposing maybe, things a let the other, hidden when expressed in human target attitude of calosotomia.